who did what with ROOT?!

When you are not sure who is using SUDO on a server, and you really need to know who keeps making that annoying change.  You can install something to watch them, and maintain that software and related logs. Keep it setup in your package management system, and make sure it doesn’t have any patches.

OR

You could use the little-known (at least those I have asked in the field) modifications I will list below.  They are two fold.  One, you will enable to record who logs in and uses SUDO, and records their session. Much like many pieces of software out there today.  The one catch to my method is simple.  You already have the software installed, yup this has been a feature of SUDO since version 1.7.4p4.  So nothing else to install, worry about, or maintain.  It is also very easy to setup, see below:


/etc/sudoers modifcation:
All you need to do is to add 2 tags to all required sudoers entries.
*(where "su" specified, either with command or alias). 
LOG_INPUT and LOG_OUTPUT
Example: 
%admins ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: LOG_INPUT: LOG_OUTPUT: ALL

Add the following default log dir structure to sudoers:
Defaults iolog_dir=/var/log/sudo-io/%{user}
Note:
Output is logged to the directory specified by the iolog_dir option (/var/log/sudo-io by default) using a unique session ID that is included in the normal sudo log line, prefixed with TSID=.  The iolog_file option may be used to control the format of the session ID.  Output logs may be viewed with the
sudoreplay(8) utility, which can also be used to list or search the available logs.   Keeping in mind that if the user has a really long session you will be viewing it like a movie, it will replay as if he is sitting there typing.  With this in mind, sudoreplay gives you the ability to play back at faster speeds.  This makes it easier to find where things happened in a long recording.

So that is one good method to help find a culprit, but what if you are just looking at history of root?  Can you tell me who ran what? Can you tell me when they ran the commands you see when you type ‘history’?  By default, no.  The next tidbit of info is very useful, and extremely easy to add to your machines.  Simply add the following to your /etc/profile:

export HISTTIMEFORMAT=”%d.%m.%y %T “

Yes, that is a space at the end.  If you do not put that in there you will end up with it running together with the actual command typed in history.  So your history should look like the example below:

1995 06.10.15 13:08:05 top
1996 06.10.15 13:08:05 clear
1997 06.10.15 13:08:05 df -h
1998 06.10.15 13:08:05 umount /media
1999 06.10.15 13:08:05 sudo umount /media
2000 06.10.15 13:08:05 sudo su –
2001 06.10.15 13:08:07 history

I hope this helps someone save some time, as it has me.  Please feel free to share with others.

-M

 

 

Don’t forget! Linux Learning Resources

This is kept under the Linux Learning Project and Learning Resources section of the site, and is updated occasionally with new links.  Feel free to suggest one by contacting me directly.


LEARNING RESOURCES

Help/Chat:

Resources:

Need DevOps Help?

  • Had issues with your DevOps pipeline?
  • Need help streamlining automation or configuration management?
  • Need to green field or “lift and shift” applications into the cloud?

If you are trying to do any of these, and running into issues please contact me.  I am now open to consulting directly.  Fixing even a few small inefficiencies can have a huge impact on the bottom line.  Not only that, if the DevOps philosophies are really taken up, its likely that the employee base will also be happier, and proud of their accomplishments as a team.

As far as technologies I support, please take a look at my Technologies page.  (Updated often)  I am also happy to take on new ones for a project if needed.

Creating an efficient pipeline is what I do; and a fully functional system that is working well can be an amazing thing.

 

Matthew Curry
MattCurry.Com

 

The Eagle Has landed….

All,

I have made it…. the move is complete!   I just wanted to say thank you for everyone that has been waiting on me.  I know I have taken a while on a few things, and I am finally in a position to run with everything again.  I finally have a decent internet connection [330mbps/330mbps]; so I will also be able to host things at high speed for us now as well.

As far as the installer goes, I hope to be done very soon with it ;  I am putting my final touches on it for the Pixel desktop.  If I get time I might be able to get Bluetooth working!  However, I have to get caught up first.

For those waiting on hardware, most has been shipped with a few exceptions.  I have notified those people.  I have a true ‘shop’ area again, and this will allow me to be much more efficient.  Meaning shorter wait times/etc…

 

Sincerely,

-M

Thank you to all… Jasper v1.6 Image News!

First, I would like to say thank you to the community members for helping out. I have gotten a lot of input on the new image.  This has also given me better feel for what the community wanted in an image. Which leads me to the next bit of news.


Some of you are undoubtedly wondering why I have not released my Jasper v1.6 image as of yet.  Well, I can assure you there are very good reasons.

Firstly,  I have had some severe family/health issues come up as of late which take priority.  I am also in the middle of moving a family of 5.  Combine that with the other reasons below, and I feel that most will feel the wait to be worth it.

This leads me to the next bit of news, however shocking it may be.

  1.  There will be no version 1.6 image.
    1. There will be no image at all…
  2.  Instead, there will be a full installer.
    1. This is one of the reasons for the delay.
  3.   The installer will work with a full GUI, and on the desktop.
    1. Examples:
      1. Full ubuntu Install.
      2. Fresh RPI install with GUI.
  4. The installer will be iterated on by feature going forward.
    1. We can add community approved features one at a time.
      1. Example:
        1. Change Jaspers Name
        2. Change STT after setup
        3. Etc.

FAQ (COMING SOON)

  • So whats that mean for me?
  • What do I do if I am running Jasper v.15?
  • Where do I get the installer?
  • Do I need to upgrade?

 

Jasper Polling Results for Image v1.6

  • Results of the Polls:
  • Presetup profile.yml enabled
  • GUI packages will be left on the devices
    • Increasing Size Dramatically
    • Increasing Update Time Dramatically
  • Jasper will not be pre-installed
    • There will be an installer with options
    • Daemon off by default
  • Home Assistant will be pre-installed
    • Daemon off by default
    • Mosquito MQTT Server installed with it

 


Would you prefer to have the profile.yml presetup as in v1.5?
  • Yes: 9
  • No: 0
Do you want GUI option, even though its not suggested?
  • Yes: 5
  • No, it will break: 2
Should v1.6 Have Jasper Already Installed?
  • Yes:  2
  • No:  1
  • I want installer:  7
Should HomeAssistant be included in v1.6?
  • Yes:  4
  • No:  1
  • Whats that?:  1

What is Revision Control? (GIT/SVN)

A component of software configuration management (aka SCM), version control, also known as revision control or source control, is the management of changes to files and source. Changes are usually identified by a number or letter code, termed the “revision number”, “revision level”, or simply “revision”. For example, an initial set of files is “revision 1”. When the first change is made, the resulting set is “revision 2”, and so on. Each revision is associated with a timestamp and the person making the change. Revisions can be compared, restored, and with some types of files, merged.

Revision control can be very confusing to someone new, as you can see there are many ways to say the exact same thing.  This can make it difficult to pick up the concepts.  There are also many different kinds as you can see here.  However, the major one I would hope everyone would be familiar with is GIT, and SVN for the older folks. JJ… 😛

Git, invented by Linus Torvalds as mentioned here is the most prolific and widely used one out currently.  I also have a links under my Learning Resources page that are great for learning GIT.  Please keep in mind that GIT, and GitHub or two differnt things.  One is the software/method, and the other is a service that simply sells said software as a service.

What is Continuous Devlivery? (CD)

Continuous delivery (CD) is a software engineering approach in which teams produce software in short cycles, ensuring that the software can be reliably released at any time.  It aims at building, testing, and releasing software faster and more frequently. The approach helps reduce the cost, time, and risk of delivering changes by allowing for more incremental updates to applications in production. A straightforward and repeatable deployment process is important for continuous delivery.

What is Continuous Integration? (CI)

Continuous Integration is a software development practice where members of a team integrate their work frequently; usually they integrate at least daily – leading to multiple per day. Each integration is verified by an automated build/test to detect integration errors as quickly as possible. This usually leads to significantly reduced integration problems and allows a team to develop software more rapidly.

A few BASH tips from an old Linux admin.

Everyone has seen these “Top 50 commands” blah blah blah….. #clickbait….

I am writing this just to make BASH a much more pleasant experience for people new and old to Linux.  It is also for any sysadmin that has simply not been introduced to some of them.

I could list tons of them, but that’s going to get a simple TL;DR for most people.  Then they will move on.  So I will list a few and lets let those digest.  Keep in mind all commands are in Linux, and may vary by distribution.

First BASH tips (Simple, but time savers):

  1.  Type ‘cd’ and you will go to your home directory for the user you are logged into.
    1. Similar to “cd” ~, however ~ can sometimes rely on the environment.
  2. To return to the previous directory you can type ” cd -“.
    1. This will return you to your previous location, not home.
  3. Type “tailf”, instead of “tail f” for the same results.
    1. Also, “tail -200” can be used instead of “tail -n 200”
  4. Use a custom “PS1” for root, and regular users.
    1. A “PS1” is the text in the login prompt. See Example to the right:
      1. Notice it is yellow
      2. Do the same but in red for root.
    2. Examples:
      1. Debian PS1 for a normal user (as seen to the right)
      2. Debian PS1 for a ROOT user.
        1. These will need to be added to the bottom of “.bashrc” in your home directory
        2. Keep in mind files starting with a . are hidden in Linux, but there.
          1. I also have MAC PS1’s public in my gists.

 

I think that is enough for today, I hope this helps make BASH your friend.

 

-M